The Intel 8051 is a 8-bit microcontroller which implies that most accessible operations are constrained to 8 bits. There are 3 essential "sizes" of the 8051: Short, Standard, and Extended. The Short and Standard chips are regularly accessible in DIP (dual in-line package) structure, however the Extended 8051 models frequently have an alternate structure calculate, and are not "drop-in compatible". Every one of these things are called 8051 on the grounds that they can all be customized utilizing 8051 assembly language, and they all share certain components (despite the fact that the distinctive models all have their own particular exceptional feature).
A highlights' portion that have made the 8051 famous are:
4 KB on chip program memory.
128 bytes on chip data memory(RAM)
4 reg banks.
128 user defined software flags.
8-bit data bus
16-bit address bus
16 bit timers (usually 2, but may have more, or less).
3 internal and 2 external interrupts.
Bit as well as byte addressable RAM area of 16 bytes.
Four 8-bit ports, (short models have two 8-bit ports).
16-bit program counter and data pointer.
1 Microsecond instruction cycle with 12 MHz Crystal.
8051 models might likewise have various unique, model-particular components, for example, UART, ADC, Op_Amps, and so forth it is a capable micro controller.
8051 chips are utilized as a part of a wide assortment of control systems, telecom applications, robotics and in addition in the automotive business. By a few estimations, 8051 family chips make up more than half of the embedded chip market.
Starting 2013, new derivate are still created by numerous significant chip makers, and real compiler suppliers, for example, IAR Systems, Keil and Altium Tasking persistently release updates
MCS-51 based microcontrollers commonly incorporate maybe a couple UARTs, a few timers, 128 or 256 bytes of internal data RAM (16 bytes of which are bit-addressable), up to 128 bytes of I/O, 512 bytes to 64 KB of interior project memory, and infrequently an amount of augmented data RAM (ERAM) situated in the outer data space. The first 8051 core ran at 12 clock cycles for each machine cycle, with most guidelines executing in one or two machine cycles. With a 12 MHz clock recurrence, the 8051 could in this way execute 1 million one-cycle directions every second or 500,000 two-cycle instructions every second. Improved 8051 cores are currently normally utilized which keep running at six, four, two, or even one clock for each machine cycle, and have clock frequencies of up to 100 MHz, and are consequently equipped for a significantly more noteworthy number of directions every second. All Silicon Labs, some Dallas and a couple Atmel gadgets have single cycle cores.
8051 variants may incorporate implicit reset timers with brown-out recognition, on-chip oscillators, self-programmable Flash ROM program memory, built-in external RAM, additional internal program storage, boot loader code in ROM, EEPROM non-volatile data storage, IēC, SPI, and USB host interfaces, CAN or LIN bus, ZigBee or Bluetooth radio modules, PWM generators, analog comparators, A/D and D/A converters, RTCs, extra counters and timers, in-circuit debugging facilities, more interrupt sources, extra power saving modes, etc.
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